Main Article Content
Proverbs are witty and metaphorical statements in which many didactics and moral values are concealed. Many studies, especially in the African context, have examined the societal perceptions of gender via proverbs. However, little is known about how children and adults are stratified through proverbs. The significant role of Nzema traditional proverbs in redirecting the paths of members of the society and maintaining social equilibrium requires attention in the literature of paremiology. Adopting Sharifian’s (2011) cultural linguistics framework, this study explores how children and adults are portrayed in Nzema proverbs. The analysis is based on 17 proverbs purposively selected from primary and secondary sources. The data demonstrates that children are not adamant and recalcitrant by default; rather, they have other acceptable behaviours which the society embraces. It is revealed that intelligence is not attributed to adults only; rather, children also display a certain level of intelligence, though they sometimes act as immature and inexperienced. The article also shows that the Nzema child is brought up to desist from intruding into adult discussions, especially when uninvited. The study concludes that the advisory content of this category of proverbs has helped to reshape the conduct of deviant individuals in order to promote peaceful societal coexistence.
Agyekum, K. (2019). The ethno-pragmatics of Akan advice. Pragmatics, 29(3), 309-331.
Agyekum, K. (2018). Akan body parts expressions: Cognitive semantics and pragmatic approach. Accra: Adwinsa Publications Ltd.
Agyekum, K. (2017). The ethno-semantics and proverbs of ohia ‘poverty’ in Akan. Legon Journal of the Humanities, 28(2), 23-48.
Agyekum, K. (2005). An Akan oral artist: The use of proverbs in the lyrics of Kwabena Konadu. Research Review, 21(1), 1-17.
Akanbi, T. A. (2015). The syntax of Yoruba proverbs. Global Journal of Human-Social Science (G), Volume XV Issue VIII. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu (29th November, 2021).
Aku-Sika, C. M. (2016). Gendered power relations as expressed in selected Ewe proverbs. M.Phil Thesis, University of Ghana. ugspace.ug.edu.gh
Annan, C. J. (1980. The phonology of Nzema. School of Ghana Languages, Unpublished Note.
Barasa, M. N. & Opande, I. N. (2017). The use of animal metaphors in the representation of women in Bukusu and Gusii proverbs of Kenya. The journal of Pan African Studies, 10(2), 82-108. https://18.104.22.168:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/312
Bisilki, A. K. & Nkamigbo, L. C. (2017). A Sociolinguistic and literary analysis of the proverb in Likpakpaln ‘Konkomba’. Journal of Linguistics, Language and Culture, 4(1), 103-135. www.nigerianjournalsonline.com
Bradbury, N. (2002). Transforming experience to tradition: Two theories of proverbs use and Chaucer’s practice. Oral Tradition, 17, 261-289. journal.oraltradition.org
Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Degener, A. (2022). Family relationships in proverbs from northern Pakistan. Proverbium, 39, 1-28. https://doi.org/10.29162/pv.39.1.56
Dogbey, E. & Sapaty, G. (2019). Portrayal of children and adults in Ewe proverbs. Research in Humanities and Social Sciences, 9(2), 107-117. https://www.academia.edu
Finnegan, R. (2012). Oral Literature in Africa. Cambridge: Open Book Publishers. www.openbookpublishers.com
Finnegan, R. (1970). Oral Literature in Africa. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. Ghana Statistical Service. (2021). The 2021 population and housing census. Retrieved from: Census2021.statsghana.gov.gh (8th August, 2022).
Gibbs, R. (1994). The poetics of mind: Figurative thought, language and understanding. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hussein, J. (2005). The social and ethno-cultural construction of masculinity and femininity in African proverbs. African Study Monograph, 26(2), 59-87.
Kwaw, F. (2008). Maandeɛ yɛ ɛnlomboɛ. Anyinase: Atwe Royal Consult Publishers. Kwesi, A. P. (1992). Nzema aneɛ ne anwo mgbanyidwɛkɛ. Accra: Bureau of Ghana Languages.
Quarm, P. & Kwesi, G. (1998). Nzema mrɛlɛ nee bɛ ngilenu. Accra: Bureau of Ghana Languages.
Langacker, R. (1994). Culture, cognition and grammar. In Martin Pütz (eds.), Language contact and language conflict, 71, 25-53. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Lomotey, B. A. & Chachu, S. (2020). Gender ideologies and power relations in proverbs: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Pragmatics, 168, 69-80.
Mariwah, S., Ofori, E. A., Adjakloe, Y. A., Adu-gyamfi, A. B., Asare, E., & Bonsu, C. (2022). Gender (in)equality in Ghana: A critical discourse analysis of Akan proverbs on masculinity. Journal of Asian and African Studies. Retrieved from journals.sagepub.com>doi>abs (23rd September, 2022).
Mate, M., Kebede, A. & Alemayehu, F. (2014). The social implications of Wolaita proverbs. Functional analysis. International Journal of Languages and Literatures, 2(1), 225-246.
Mensah, E. O. (2013). Proverbs in Nigerian pidgin. Journal of Anthropological Research, 69(1), 87-115.
Mensah, E. O. (2010). A morpho-syntactic analysis of Efik proverbs. An interdisciplinary Journal, 5(2), 250-280.
Nyame, J., & Tomekyin, C. (2018). Social construction of masculinity and femininity as portrayed in Nzema proverbs. International Journal of Innovative Research and Advance Studies, 5(7), 227-234.
Oha, O. (1998). The semantics of female devaluation in Igbo proverbs. African Study Monograph, 19(2), 87-102.
Okpewho, I. (1992). African oral literature. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Olatunji, O. (1984). Features of Yorùbá oral poetry. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.
Onwe, A. (2018). Proverbs and worldviews: An analysis of Ikwo proverbs and their worldview. PhD. Dissertation, Anglia Ruskin University.
Palmer, G. (1996). Toward a theory of cultural linguistics. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Patton, M. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Peeters, B. (2016). Applied ethnolinguistics is cultural linguistics, but is it cultural linguistcs? International Journal of Language and Culture, 3(2), 137-160.
Sharifian, F. (2017). Cultural linguistics: Cultural conceptualisations and language. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins
Sharifian, F. (2011). Cultural conceptualisations and language: Theoretical framework and applications. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins
Sharifian, F. (2005). Cultural conceptualisations in English words. A study of Aborigina children in Perth. Language and Education, 19(1), 74-88.
Sharifian, F. (2003). On cultural conceptualisations. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 3(3), 187-207.
Ukaegbu, N. F. (2006). Igbo aesthetics: The case of proverbs as a key to Igbo worldview and culture. Journal of Igbo Studies, 1, 164-167.
Yakub, M., Ollennu, Y. A. & Delalorm, C. (2021). The pragmatic functions of some morphological structures in Nzema proverbs. Journal of Universal Language, 22(2), 145-180.
Yakub, M. (2019). A Morpho-pragmatic and structural analysis of Nzema proverbs. M.Phil. thesis, University of Education, Winneba.
Yankah, K. (2012). The proverb in the context of Akan rhetoric. New York: Diasporic Africa Press.
Yankah, K. (1989). The proverb in the context of Akan rhetoric –A theory of proverb Praxis. Peter Lang
Yuka, C. (2016). The structure of Lamnso proverbs. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net (15th February, 2022)