Pitch Tracking of Down-stepped High Tone in Anaañ: An Instrumental Analysis Approach

Main Article Content

Mfon Ekpe
Bassey Okon


Anaañ is one of the languages spoken by the Anaañ people of Northwest part of Akwa Ibom State in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Genetically, it is a Lower Cross language. Anaañ operates two basic tones and a downstepped. This paper examines the lowering effect of high tones in sequence. Research so far traced down-step historically to a floating low tone. The thrust of this paper is to trace down stepped tone in Anaañ empirically. The objectives of the study were to find out the pitch of Anaañ high tones in isolation, examine H1 H2 pitch without lowering effect and investigate H1 !H2 downstepped. 50 informants were selected for this study. Collection of data was based on personal interaction with the informants who are native speakers. The conversations were recorded in Panasonic midget
and transferred to WAV file for pitch tracking. Filter Model is adopted as the theoretical frame for the analysis. The results show that H in isolation is not amplified or dampened because it is a standalone tone. In H1 H2, the H2 is amplified because the frequencies have
similar resonance. In H1 !H2, the H2 is dampened because of the intervening pitch which causes frequency reduction. 

Article Details

How to Cite
Ekpe, M. ., & Okon, B. . (2022). Pitch Tracking of Down-stepped High Tone in Anaañ: An Instrumental Analysis Approach. Journal of The Linguistic Association of Nigeria, 25, 21–40. Retrieved from https://jolan.com.ng/index.php/home/article/view/345


Adeniyi, K. (2018). High tone lowering in Ìgbòmina-Yorùbá. Journal of the Linguistic Association of Nigeria (JOLAN) Supplement 111, 221-231.

Akpanyun, O. (1962). A study of Efik for schools and colleges. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.

Boersma, P. & Weenink, D. (2021). Praat: Doing phonetics by computer. Version 6.1.42, Website: Praat.org

Connell, B. (1991). Phonetic aspects of the lower cross languages. Ph.D thesis. University of Edinburgh.

Ekpe, M. (2015). Aspects of Anaan͂ phonology. M.Phil thesis, University of Ibadan.

Elugbe, B. (1985). The tone system of Ghotuo. Cambridge papers in phonetics and experimental linguistics (4), 1- 21.eva.mpg.de/lingua/conference/2012_Tone/pdf/Elugbe_abstract.pdf

Elugbe, B. (2001). Tone in the attributive construction in Ghotuo. Paper presented at Toulouse Tonology Conference, 28-30 June.

Essien, O. (1990). A grammar of the Ibibio language. Ibadan: University Press Ltd.

Ladefoged, P. & Johnson, K. (2006). A course in phonetics. Wadsworth: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Michael, I. (2000). Assimilatory and syllable structure processes in Anaañ. M.A. thesis, University of Uyo.

Michael, I. & Obot, J. (2001). The orthography of Anaañ language. Calabar: Soturies Communications Ltd.

Michael, I. (2008). The syllable structure of Anaan language. PhD dissertation, University of Ibadan.

Michael, I. (2014). On the use of modern technological techniques for the teaching of Anaang/Ibibio tones. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 5(4), 791-800.

Michael, I., Udontata, J.,Otong, J, Ikorok, M., Udoidiong, O.,Udioko, S., Daniel, J., Mbaba, N., Udoikpong, S., Udoka, A.,Inyang, G., Akpabio, A., Essien, E.,Unang, V. & Idung, J. (Eds.) (2019). The revised Anaañ orthography. Abuja: NERDC.

Stewart, J. (1983). Downstep and floating low tones. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics, 5(1), 57-78.

Udoh, I. (1998). The effect of duration on the intonation of Anaañ learners of English. PhD thesis, University of Calabar.

Udoh, I. & Okon, B. (2005). The languages of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Lagos: Concept Publications.

Udontata, J. (2006). A grammar of Anaañ language. Ikot Ekpene: Joe Graph Publications.

Urua, E. (2000). Ibibio phonetics and phonology. CASAS: Cape Town, South Africa.

Ward, I. (1933). The phonetics and tonal structure of Efik. Cambridge: Heffer and Sons.

Williamson, K. (1984). Practical orthography in Nigeria. Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.

Winston, F. (1960). The ‘Mid’ tone in Efik. African Language Studies, 1, 185-192.