The Ḿbáīsé-Ígbò WH-words and complementation: A GB syntax approach
Main Article Content
This paper tries to highlight the peculiar features of WH-Questions (WHQS) and to establish whether WH-words are nominal elements which do subcategorize complements to limit their references. The WH-words in Ḿbáīsé-Ígbò are grouped into two kinds - those marked by WH-words or the Predicate in-situ WHQs and those marked by initial Kèdụ́/ Ńdị ́ị̄/Ńdáā/ Óléē or the Subject in situ WHQs, where the WH-word is based-generated in SPEC-I position. The question words with initial Ńdị ́ị̄/ńdáā/Óléē(Kèdụ), are base-generated head-initially and take cognates - íhē, ébē, ónyē, ótū, ógè, m̀gbè, as their complements, which specify, ‘what’, how, when, where, and manner. The cognates serve as complements. The Predicate in-situ WHQs are the ones in which the WH-words occur in the complement or predicate position by some movement transformations. These WH-words are themselves the complements of the verbs. Adopting the Government and Binding (GB) approach and a qualitative method, with primary and secondary data, it is observed in Ḿbáīsé-Ígbò that WH-words are either the complements of verbs or nominal elements that subcategorize complements depending on their environment of occurrence.
Akmajian, A. and Frank H. 1979. Introduction to the principles of transformational syntax. Cambridge. MIT Press.
Andrew, C. 2006. Syntax: A generative introduction. second edition. Blackwell Publishing.
Aṅụnobi, E.N 1989a Towards the description of questions in universal grammar: the examples of Igbo and Hausa unpublished M.A Thesis University of Jos.
Aṅụnobi, E.N 1989b ‘Interrogatives in Igbo’ a paper presented at the 10th conference of the linguistic association of nigerria held at University of Jos. Brown, K. and Miller J. 1980. Syntax: a linguistic introduction to sentence structure. London: Routledge.
Carrel, P.L.G 1970 A transformational grammar of Igbo Ibadan. C.U.P
Chomsky, N. 1970. ‘Remarks on nominalization ’in: Jacobs, R.A., and P.S. Chomsky, N. 1981. Lectures on government and binding Dordrecht: Foris.
Chomsky, N. 1981. ‘Lectures on government and binding’. Dordrecht: Foris Publications
Chomsky, N. 1982. Some concepts and consequences of the theory government and binding. Cambridge. MA:MIT Press
Chomsky, N. 1986a. ‘Knowledge of language: its nature, origin and use’ in: government and binding Mass: MIT Press
Cook, V. I. 1997. Inside language. London. Routledge Emenanjo, E. N. 1978. Elements of modern Igbo grammar. Ibadan Oxford University Press.
Enwere, O.B 1991 An account of WH-questions in Igbo syntax. Unpublished undergraduate project University of Port Harcourt
Enwere, O.B 2010 A syntax of the Igbo noun phrase: the Ḿbáīsé Unpublished MA Thesis University of Port Harcourt
Goldsmith, J. 1980a. The structure of WH-questions in Igbo in Henry Hiz (ed) D..Reidel Publishing
Green, M.N.and G.E.Igwe, 1963. A descriptive grammar of Igbo. Berlin: Akademie-Verleg
Gorgi, A. and Longobardi, G. 1991. The syntax of noun phrase: configuration, parameters and empty categories. Cambridge Studies in Linguistic 57. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Haegemon, L 1994 Introduction to government and binding theory (Second Edition) Blackwell.
Huddleston, R. 1976. An introduction to English transformational syntax. New York: London Group Ltd.
Huddleston, R. 1988 English grammar: an outline. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lyons, J.1968. Introduction to theoretical linguistics. Cambridge University Press
Marantz, A.1984 ‘On the nature of grammatical relations Cambridge’. Mass.MIT Press
Mbah, B.M 2003. ‘The syntax of complements In Igbo’ in: Ndimele, O-M (ed.) (2003) in: The linguistic paradise. Aba: NINLAN
Mbah, B.M. 2006. GB syntax: theory and application in Igbo. (no place)
Mbah, B.M. 2012. GB syntax: a minimalist theory and application to Igbo. Enugu. CIDJAP Press
Ndimele, O-M. 1992 Parameters of universal grammar: a government and binding approach. Owerri. African Educational Services.
Ndimele, O.-M. 1991. Questions in GB syntax:insights from Echie . (unpublished) PhD dissertation. University of Port Harcourt..
Nwachukwu, P.A. 1975. ‘Noun-phrase sentential complements in Igbo’ (unpublished) PhD dissertation. University of London
Ogbonna, A.N.1999 Head-complement relations in Ngwa-Igbo (unpublished an M.A Thesis University of Port Harcourt
Oluikpe, B.O 1979. Igbo transformational syntax. Onitsha: Africana Publishers.
Quirk, R, Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. 1972. A grammar of contemporary English. London: Longman
Quirk, R. and Greenbaum, S. 1973. A university grammar of English: London Longman
Quirk, R. and Greenbaum, S 1973. A university grammar of English. London: Longman Group.
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, 1990. A grammar of contemporary English.London: Longman
Radford, A. 1981. Transformational syntax. Cambridge of English. London: Longman
Radford, A. 1997. Syntax: a minimalist introduction. Cambridge University
Ransom E. 1986 ‘Complementation: its meaning and forms’ in: Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Beckley linguistics
Riemsdijk, H. and Williams, E.1986. Introduction to the theory of grammar. Cambridge Cambridge
Ume, I.A et al. (eds) 1989 ̣Ụmị nkọwa ̣ụtọasụsụ Igbo. Onitsha.: Kawuriz and Manilas Publishers Ltd.
Welmers, E 1963. African languages structure. London University of California Press